Literature Articles

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Designing for Free Flow: Testing Low Friction Coatings for Powder Handling Equipment

Jamie Clayton, Operations Director, Freeman Technology

Coatings applied to the surfaces of machinery and handling plant such as hoppers can reduce wear and corrosion, as well ...

Lenterra Sensor Systems Brochure

Micro-optical technology for measuring fores in powder, non-Newtonian and multiphase flows. The system offers in-line, real-time flow measurement.

Powder Rheology in Additive Manufacturing

Jamie Clayton, Operations Director, Freeman Technology

This paper uses four case studies to demonstrate the limitations of single parameter characterisation and how the rheological properties of ...

Uniaxial Powder Tester Brochure

Introducing the Uniaxial Powder Tester (UPT). Assess and rank powder flowability by measuring uniaxial unconfined yield strength (uUYS).

An Introduction to Uniaxial Shear Testing

Tim Freeman, Managing Director, Freeman Technology

While uniaxial shear testing provides many of the same fundamental parameters and is simpler than biaxial shear testing for characterizing ...

FT4 Powder Rheometer Brochure - CN Translation

Tim Freeman, Managing Director, Freeman Technology

The FT4 Powder Rheometer was originally designed to characterise the rheology, or flow properties, of powders. This remains a primary ...

FT4 Powder Rheometer Brochure

Tim Freeman, Managing Director, Freeman Technology

The FT4 Powder Rheometer was designed to characterise the rheology, or flow properties, of powders. The instrument, accessories and methodologies ...

A Quality by Design (QbD) Approach to Continuous Tablet Manufacture

Tim Freeman and Brian Armstrong – Freeman Technology, Andrew Birkmire – GEA Pharma Systems

The pharmaceutical industry is looking to continuous processing to enhance production efficiency and product quality, in line with guidance from ...

Measurement and Quantification of Caking in Powders

Tim Freeman, Katrina Brockbank and Brian Armstrong – Freeman Technology

Significant numbers of materials in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, from raw feeds, additives and intermediates through to manufactured ...

Powder Testing Strategies

Jamie Clayton, Operations Director - Freeman Technology

The properties of alternative cement constituents used in clinker substitution vary markedly depending on their source, and different processing conditions ...

Understand the Effects of Moisture on Powder Behavior

Brian Armstrong, Katrina Brockbank, Jamie Clayton - Freeman Tehnology

Numerous bulk powders are used in the chemical process industries (CPI), and each powder behaves differently, sometimes counterintuitively. The relationship ...

Testing for Tableting

Jamie Clayton, Operations Director - Freeman Technology

Powder testing has progressed significantly since the turn of the millennium, delivering major benefits in tableting applications. At a time ...

Polymers for 3D Printing

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is an additive manufacturing technique typically used for rapid prototyping and low volume production of functional ...

PAT In-Depth Focus - Correlation between Powder Rheology Data and Processability in Solid Dosage Form Manufacturing

Erik Skibsted, Principal Scientist, Novo Nordisk

The Quality by Design (QbD) paradigm is being introduced to more and more R&D and manufacturing units in the pharmaceutical ...

The Next Wave of PAT: Advancing Process Understanding to Process Control

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, Zhenqi Shi Lilly and David E Reed, Research Laboratory, George L Read Pfizer, Worldwide Research & Development

This article aims to discuss process control and implementation in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. It will also convey the importance ...

Optimising Tabletting Processes with Quality by Design

Tim Freeman, Managing Director, Freeman Technology & Carl Levoguer, Product Marketing Manager (Laser, Particle Sizing and Imaging), Malvern Instruments

We all know the importance of particle size distribution when it comes to processing the perfect tablet, but there are ...

The Attraction and Challenge of Continuous Manufacture

Jamie Clayton, Operations Manager, Freeman Technology

This article looks at the potential benefits of continuous manufacturing, highlights the way analytical practice may need to change to ...

Dynamic Testing Methods Pinpoint Parameters Suitable for Further Insight into In-Process Powder Behavior

Jamie Clayton, Freeman Technology & Michael Mayer, AZO GmbH + Co. KG

Dynamic powder testing methods pinpoint parameters suitable for further insight into in-process powder behaviour. The use of a Powder Rheometer ...

Controlling the Impact of Humidity

Tim Freeman, Managing Director, Brian Armstrong, Powder Technologist, Jamie Clayton, Operations Manager - Freeman Technology

There is a widespread misconception that any moisture worsens powder properties, but in practice all materials respond differently. This article ...

Powder Characterisation for Efficient Processing: Moving to a New Manufacturing Model

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology

As the pharmaceutical industry works to transform manufacturing practice, it is timely to examine the role of supporting technologies. One ...

Effective Powder Processing Across the Pharma Life Cycle

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology

Learn how using strategies for effective process development ensures manufacturing experience and expertise are appropriately applied at every stage of ...

Powder Characterisation for Inhaled Drug Delivery

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

Manipulating and controlling powder behaviour is a demanding but essential element of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The development and production of dry ...

Modern Pharmaceuticals Interview: Tim Freeman discusses the importance of efficient powder processing, and how the FT4 can help solve challenges in formulation and product development

Chandreyee Bhaumik & Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology

Efficient powder processing is essential for the production of many different materials including foodstuffs, cosmetics, metal powders, minerals and, of ...

10 Years in Powders. Making Powders and Processes Fit

Tim Freeman, Director of Operations, Freeman Technology

The last decade has been a pivotal one for powder testing. Leaving behind the simplistic idea of trying to define ...

Powder Testing for Better Formulation

Almost all pharmaceutical products exist in powder form at some point on their way to finished product, so an understanding ...

Powder Testing Techniques for Quality by Design (QbD)

Quality by Design demands the detailed consideration of processing issues during the earlier stages of development. This poses the question ...

Understanding Powder Caking

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

Caking, or unwanted agglomeration, presents major problems in powder processing, capable of making even those powders that are normally free-flowing ...

Ask the Expert: Why is effective powder characterisation so important for the pharmaceutical industry?

Effective powder characterisation can lead to better powder understanding and control, which is crucial in the pharmaceutical industry where the ...

Measuring Powder Properties

Characterization of DPI formulations using a powder rheometer helps developers understand volumetric dosing and aerosolization performance.

Understanding Powder Behaviour

Tim Freeman, Director of Operations, Freeman Technology Ltd

The pharmaceutical industry relies on analytical technologies for many testing and monitoring purposes, including formulation analysis, quality control and the ...

Characterising Powders for Better Solids Processing

The pharmaceutical industry is moving towards greater emphasis on efficient manufacture. The foundations for successful manufacture must be laid during ...

Analytical Techniques for Successful Cosmetic Compact Manufacture

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

Formulating and manufacturing cosmetic compacts to deliver market-leading performance characteristics requires a high degree of powder processing expertise. This paper ...

Enhancing Dose Consistency

Selecting the best construction material is an important element of plant design. For powder handling applications, choosing a surface finish ...

Optimizing Ceramic Powder Specification

Powder characterization that is both reliable and relevant to the process makes it easier to develop a blend or granulate ...

Measuring Powder Behaviour in Relation to QbD

Characterising and understanding powder flowability is critical, particularly in relation to the pharmaceutical industry’s Quality by Design (QbD) and PAT ...

Choosing the Best Construction Material for Powder Processing Equipment

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

Selecting the best material of construction is a crucial part of the plant design process, the aim being to balance ...

Implementing QbD: Powder Characterization for Design Space Definition

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

For those seeking to adopt a Quality by Design approach to pharmaceutical development and manufacture, effective definition of the ‘design ...

Better Wet Granulation: Development, Scale-up and Manufacture

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

Wet granulation is a common unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry yet accurate endpoint detection remains a challenge. Here we ...

Dynamic Powder Characterization for Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI) Formulation

Tim Freeman, Director of Operations, Freeman Technology Limited & Dr Robert Price, Pharmaceutical Surface Science Group

In this discussion, we consider the way powders behave in DPIs and examine the dynamic and bulk powder properties that ...

Process Relevant Powder Characterization - A Powerful Tool for Development and Troubleshooting

This article examines modern strategies for powder characterization in the pharmaceutical industry, with reference to commonly used technologies. It explores ...

Modern Tools for Hopper Design

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

This study reviews the application of the Hopper Design Software package for the FT4 Powder Rheometer. Drawing on the characterization ...

Quantifying Experience in Powder Processing

Enshrined in the concept of Quality by Design is the premise that optimized pharmaceutical manufacturing requires detailed understanding of products ...

Predicting the In-Process Behaviour of Powders

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

A knowledge of which existing formulations do or do not process well, in conjunction with comprehensive powder characterization, enables the ...

Investigating the Confined and Unconfined Flow Behavior of Powders

Reg Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

This paper examines the mechanisms associated with powder flow, contrasting the way in which materials behave when confined and unconfined. ...

Developing Powder Processing Expertise for the Implementation of Quality by Design

Reg Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

Powder characterization techniques have improved significantly in recent decades, developing well beyond the simplistic methods traditionally used. This paper examines ...

Fine Tuning Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI) Formulas

Various researchers have found that the inclusion of excipient fines in a formulation enhances Dry Powder Inhaler drug delivery. With ...

Assessing Powder Stability

Reg Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

Some powders appear inherently variable, sensitive to the slightest change in conditions, while others are much more forgiving. Stability testing ...

Formulation Optimization For Tableting Applications

Tablet production is an essential operation for the pharmaceutical industry. Developing formulations that process well in these units to consistently ...

Intelligent Powder Processing

Reg Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

In this paper we discuss how powder processors experiences can be fully exploited by correlating process observations with measurable powder ...

Powder Testing for Quality Control Applications

Quality Control is a vital part of any manufacturing process. Verifying the properties and consistency of both feed materials and ...

Going with the Flow

Powder Coatings - the importance of specifying, monitoring and controlling powder flow properties.

Understanding Powder Behaviour by Measuring Bulk, Flow and Shear Properties

A review of pharmaceutical processing and the relevance of powder flow properties in relation to four types of lactose varying ...

Testing Powders in Process Relevant Ways

A review of powder handling processing issues and how knowledge of key powder properties can be correlated with processing experience ...

Developing Multicolored Powder Primers at PSA Peugeot Citroën

Claire Pichon and Nicolas Guillot - PSA Peugeot Citroën Cyril Conesa - PSA Peugeot Citroën and Compiègne University of Technology Pierre Guigon and Khashayar Saleh - Compiègne University of Technology

This article discusses how PSA Peugeot Citroen developed multi-coloured polyester-epoxy powder primers for use on cars produced at it's Mulhouse ...

Characterizing Powders for Optimized Pharmaceutical Processing

Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, UK

A review of powder characterisation and some of the ways in which manufacturers can use the data produced to cost ...

The Importance of Air Content on the Rheology of Powders: An Empirical Study

Powders are sometimes considered to be relatively stable entities like the individual solid particles that make up their mass. This ...