Literature Articles

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Evaluating Processability of Flux Powders

Suppliers of flux powders face the same challenges as any bulk material supplier dispensing from storage containers into smaller receptacles ...

Quantifying Caking Using The FT4 Powder Rheometer

Many materials in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, from raw materials, additives and intermediates through to manufactured products, are ...

In-Line PAT for High Shear Wet Granulation by Measuring Drag Force Flow

HSWG is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to combine multiple components of a blend into a more free-flowing, homogeneous ...

Understanding Powder Behaviour in Battery Production

Jamie Clayton, Operations Director, Freeman Technology

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are used in a wide range of products due to the fact they have high energy density, ...

Understanding the Impact of High Shear Blending

Doug Millington-Smith

In many industries, powders are combined with other powders, or binders, in high-shear blending operations, forming homogeneous mixtures for further ...

Predicting Flow Performance in Screw Feeders

Doug Millington-Smith

This study, with Gericke AG, demonstrates how to generate a design and operating model based around robust measurements of rheological ...

Process Relevant Properties of Drink Powders

Doug Millington-Smith

In vending machines, powdered formulations are often reconstituted with water produce a variety of drinks, such as coffee, hot chocolate ...

Evaluating Processability of Flux Powders

Doug Millington-Smith, Principal Applications Specialist, Freeman Technology

Suppliers of flux powders face the same challenges as any bulk material supplier dispensing from storage containers into smaller receptacles ...

Quantifying Caking Using The FT4 Powder Rheometer

Doug Millington-Smith, Principal Applications Specialist, Freeman Technology

Through testing and understanding the behaviour of each material, it becomes possible to assess and minimize the risk of caking ...

Limitations and Risks of Flow Function Analysis

The results from shear cell tests can be graphically represented in several ways. The most reliable representation is a plot ...

Limitations of Mathematically Derived Parameters from Shear Cell Testing

Shear Cell testing was originally designed to determine the incipient flow of continuous, cohesive powders under applied stress in order ...

Characterising Batch to Batch Variability in Gypsum Products

Gypsum is a natural product, and can be mined from multiple sources. A manufacturing method that processes these multiple sources to produce a consistent product is essential, as even subtle variation between batches will lead to differences in the behaviour of the material across the diverse range of applications and processes.   A method of accurately quantifying differences in the properties of gypsum batches that are known to impact process performance is therefore critical to ensuring batch consistency and product quality.

Developing a Design Space for a Die Filling Operation

Filling is a common operation across all industries, although fill weights and tolerances vary widely. The factors that influence efficiency ...

Sachet Filling

Sachets are widely employed in food and pharmaceutical industries. It is imperative that the sachet filling process produces consistent, uniform ...

The Influence of Flow Additives on Powder Behaviour

Many powders have poor basic flow properties: They block in hoppers and die feed frames, exhibit inconsistent or pulsatile discharge ...

Optimising the Flow Properties of Cement Powders By Surface Treatment

Surface treatment offers the opportunity to alter the flow properties of a powder in order to optimise process performance. However, ...

Characterising Variable Performance in Ceramic Hot Isostatic Pressing

In the production of certain high performance ceramics, spray-dried particles of milled material are filled into a die and isostatically ...

Comparison of Shear Cell Sizes on the FT4 Powder Rheometer

Shear cell testing of powders is a well-established technique that allows the operator to understand how their samples transition from ...

The Influence of Roller Compaction Process Variables on Granule Properties

Processing powder blends can present a number of challanges: component powders may be poorly flowing in the process, the blends ...

Optimising Additive Manufacturing with the FT4 Powder Rheometer

Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is a potentially transformative, highly efficient manufacturing technique. The results of this study ...

Applications of the FT4 Powder Rheometer in Additive Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is a potentially transformative, highly efficient manufacturing technique. The results of this study ...

Particle Size Independent Variation of Bulk Excipients

Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) has been used as a pharmaceutical excipient for many years, due to its abundance, ease of production ...

The Benefits of Multivariate Analysis over Shear Cell Testing

Shear Cell testing is a well-established technique for measuring the incipient flow properties of a powder under consolidation, an important ...

The Value of Measuring Force and Torque during Dynamic Tests

During a Dynamic Flow test using the FT4 Powder Rheometer®, a patented helical blade descends through the powder bed along ...

Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to Evaluate the Flow Characteristics of Cement Powders and their Components

Cement is one of the most ubiquitous industrial materials. It is produced in vast quantities in a wide variety of ...

Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to Test Cosmetic Compacts

Freeman Technology has developed two accessories that can be used to evaluate the quality of cosmetic powder compacts. Both accessories ...

A QbD Approach to Continuous Tablet Manufacture - Utilising the FT4 Powder Rheometer and the GEA ConsiGma Twin Screw High Shear Granulator

The pharmaceutical industry is looking to continuous processing to enhance production efficiency and product quality, in line with guidance from ...

Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to Evaluate Vibration Induced Consolidation

There are many types of process devices that employ vibration - feeders, sieves, discharge aids, compactors. Equally environmental from plant ...

Introducing the 1ml Shear Cell - Measuring the Flow Properties of Small Samples

The Freeman Technology 1ml Shear Cell allows very small powder samples to be automatically tested, minimising the consumption of scarce ...

Automated Hopper Design Software

The biggest obstacle to overcome when designing hoppers, bin or silos is the situation where 'no-flow' occurs due to arching. ...

Characterising Wet Masses Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer

The presence of free water can fundamentally influence powder flow properties. Depending on the hygroscopic properties of the material, water ...

The Influence of Particle Size and Shape on Flow Properties

The size and shape of the particles are important factors in influencing powder behaviour, and many well-established techniques exist for ...

The Influence of Storage and Handling

This application note considers the evaluation of bulk excipients for tableting and the impact of storage and handling conditions.

Capsule Filling

In the pharmaceutical industry, the blending of a small fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with a bulk excipient, and ...

Fluidisation and Processability of Powder Coatings

The high level of performance and low environmental impact associated with powder coating makes it an attractive option for a ...

Qualification of the FT4 Powder Rheometer using CRM116 Limestone Powder

Characterisation of the bulk properties of powders has advanced greatly over the past decade with the introduction of the FT4 ...

Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to Characterise DPI Formulations and to Understand Dosing and Aerosolisation Performance

Developing powders that exhibit predictable and reliable behaviour in an inhalation process presents a genuine challenge for formulation scientists. Active ...

Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to Evaluate the Effects of Environmental Humdity

Humidity is an ever present feature in the atmosphere and the absorption/adsorption of moisture by powdered and bulk materials can ...

Batch Variability in Spray Coating Applications

In spray coating applications, identifying and quantifying which powder properties correlate with the most efficient performance in a process allows ...

Assessing Batch-to-Batch Variability of Bulk Chemicals

Identifying and quantifying which powder properties are conducive to efficient processing allows new formulations to be optimised without the significant ...

Flow Properties Study on Three Titanium Dioxide Powders

Flow properties study of one untreated and two types of treated titamium dioxide powders. The study demonstrates that flow performance ...

Talcum

Evaluation of standard and micronised talcum powders showing how flow properties depend upon flow rate, compaction, aeration and de-aeration as ...

Lactose / Magnesium Stearate

How magnesium stearate affects the flow properties of Lactose.