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FT4 Powder Rheometer - Summary of Methdologies

FT4 Powder Rheometer - Universal Powder Flow Tester - Methodologies

General
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Lenterra Flow Sensor (LFS) System - EN

The LFS system consists of a Drag Force Flow (DFF) sensor, the Lenterra Optical Interrogator (LOI) and a ruggedised laptop with bespoke software.

General
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An Introduction to Powders

An Introduction to Powders explains how and why powders behave the way they do, and how this impacts powder flow.

General
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Choosing a Powder Tester

Choosing a Powder Tester reviews the range of techniques available for powder characterisation. Powder Testing techniques that allow users to understand and control both the product and manufacturing process therefore deliver substantial value.

General
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The Value of Powder Testing

The Value of Powder Testing assesses the economic benefits that a powder tester can deliver and explains how these may vary depending on the instrumentation selected.

General
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The Importance of Air Content on the Rheology of Powders - an Empirical Study using the FT4 Powder Rheometer

Powders are sometimes considered to be relatively stable entities like the individual solid particles that make up their mass. This is not the case however, since their rheological properties can change by factors of between 100 and 1,000 in the presence of air. This paper describes how a powder can be characterized in relation to air content using methods that provide reproducible data from which databases on powder flow properties can be created. Published in American Laboratory News - 2004

Toner
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A Study of the Flow Properties of Toners in Relation to Physical & Environmental Factors

A study of the flow properties of a range of magnetic toners produced from a common base in relation to three physical variables - the milling method, the type and amount of flow additive and to a limited extent, particle size.

General
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预测螺旋加料器中的流动性能 (Predicting Flow Performance in Screw Feeders)

该研究展示了如何基于稳定的粉体流变特性测量和标准多元线性回归 (MLR) 分析生成设计和操作模型。

General
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The Importance of Air Content on the Rheology of Powders - an Empirical Study using the FT4 Powder Rheometer

A study of how the rheological properties of powders are greatly influenced by the presence or absence of air. Presented at Particulate Systems Analysis 2003, Harrogate, UK - August 2003.

Pharmaceutical
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Characterizing Powders for Optimized Pharmaceutical Processing

A review of powder characterisation and some of the ways in which manufacturers can use the data produced to cost effectively increase the efficiency of production processes and more closely control product quality.

General
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Testing Powders in Process Relevant Ways

A review of powder handling processing issues and how knowledge of key powder properties can be correlated with processing experience to improve productivity and product quality.

Additives
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Flowability of Powders and the Effects of Flow Additives

A study of how the bulk and flow properties of potato starch and corn starch are affected by small amounts of fumed silica flow additive (AEROSIL® 200). A powder rheometer was used to measure dynamic flow properties as well as shear properties, including their yield loci when pre-consolidated and their shear strength (cohesion) at near zero consolidation stress.

Pharmaceutical
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Understanding Powder Behaviour by Measuring Bulk, Flow and Shear Properties

A review of pharmaceutical processing and the relevance of powder flow properties in relation to four types of lactose varying from finely milled to spray dried.

Coatings
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Going with the Flow

Powder Coatings - the importance of specifying, monitoring and controlling powder flow properties.

General
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Powder Testing for Quality Control Applications

Quality Control is a vital part of any manufacturing process. Verifying the properties and consistency of both feed materials and products is critical in ensuring efficient process operation and customer satisfaction.

Pharmaceutical
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Volumetric Dosing Efficiency in Relation to the Bulk, Flow and Shear Properties of Powders

This study examines the efficiency of volumetric dosing for a number of different powders and shows how the results correlate with the powder properties measured using the FT4 Powder Rheometer. Presented at Partec 2007.

General
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Intelligent Powder Processing

In this paper we discuss how powder processors experiences can be fully exploited by correlating process observations with measurable powder parameters. Using process relevant powder characterisation brings improved process understanding, which in turn leads to cost reductions and a lowering of the risks associated with change.

Pharmaceutical
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Formulation Optimization For Tableting Applications

Tablet production is an essential operation for the pharmaceutical industry. Developing formulations that process well in these units to consistently deliver uniform tablets with the required properties, remains an ongoing challenge. This article looks at how dynamic powder testing can optimise this process.

Pharmaceutical
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Fine Tuning Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI) Formulas

Various researchers have found that the inclusion of excipient fines in a formulation enhances Dry Powder Inhaler drug delivery. With a DPI, delivery of the defined dose to the lung, relies on control of the aerosolisation proess initiated by the inhaling patient. Here, the impact of fines on powder properties is explored with reference to the effect this has on behaviour within the DPI.

General
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Assessing Powder Stability

Some powders appear inherently variable, sensitive to the slightest change in conditions, while others are much more forgiving. Stability testing assesses this critical aspect of powder behavior.

General
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Measuring Powder Characteristics relating to Forced Flow into Confined Spaces using a Universal Powder Tester

Very cohesive powders can behave like a fluid when pressurised or subjected to forced flow. Such powders may extrude like toothpaste, whereas normally free flowing powders will resist forced flow. This study focuses on understanding these characteristics and determining how they correlate with the known powder flowability parameters that describe dynamic flow behaviour, shear properties and bulk properties including permeability and compressibility.

Pharmaceutical
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Developing Powder Processing Expertise for the Implementation of Quality by Design

Powder characterization techniques have improved significantly in recent decades, developing well beyond the simplistic methods traditionally used. This paper examines the changes in approach encouraged by QbD and the contribution modern powder testers can make.

Pharmaceutical
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Characterisation and Functionality of Anhydrous Inhalation Lactose

The aim of this study was to characterise the physiochemical properties of several different grades of inhaltion lactose to further understand the relationships between lactose functionaility and DPI formulation performance, with particular pmphasis on a new commercial inhalation grade of anhydrous lactose. Presented at DDL Edinburgh 2008

Pharmaceutical
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Evaluation of Lubricants for Making Tablets Containing High-loading of Acetaminophen

The objective of this study was to evaluate five lubricants - Magnesium Stearate Monohydrate (MgST-M), Magnesium Stearate Dihydrate (MgST-D), Stear-O-Wet M (SOW), Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) and Sodium Stearyl Fumarate (SSF) on powder flow characteristics and tableting process parameters parameters for making 450mg flat round tablets containing a high loading of direct compressible acetaminophen (APAP), COMPAP L. Presented at AAPS 2018.

Pharmaceutical
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Effects of Lubricants at Different Operating Speeds in the Tableting Process on Quality of Tablets Containing High-loading of Acetaminophen

The objective was to evaluate the effects of magnesium stearate mono hydrate (MgSt-M) and magnesium stearate dihydrate (MgSt-D) at two operating speeds in the tableting process on the quality of tablets containing a high-dose of direct compressible acetaminophen (CompapTM L). Presented at AAPS 2008.

Pharmaceutical
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Evaluation of Stear-O-Wet as a Lubricant for Making Tablets

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Stear-O-Wet on powder flow, tableting process parameters, tablet wetting characteristics, and tablet quality and comparing the results with a mixture of MgSt/SLS (94/6, w/w) for a model powder blend consisting of acetaminophen, microcrystalline cellulose, and spray dried lactose. Presented at AAPS 2008.

Pharmaceutical
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Evaluating the Impact of Particle Size Reduction Techniques on the Powder Properties of Pharmaceutical Solids

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different particle size reduction techniques on the particle characteristics and powder flow properties.

General
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Discrete Element Simulations of a Powder Rheometer: A Study of Particle Property Effects

A numerical study of the Freeman Powder Rheometer using discrete element computer simulation (DEM). To understand the effect of particle properties such as particle size, shape, cohesion etc. on the experimental and numerical measurements made using the rheometer. Presented at AAPS 2008.

Pharmaceutical
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Development of a Material Sparing Method to Determine Powder Permeability to Air

A study to develop a material sparing method to detemine the air permeability of powders as a function of consolidation load. To better understand relationships between permeability and powder properties and flowability.

Pharmaceutical
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A Critical Evaluation of Two Commercial Shear Cell Instruments for Determining the Flow Properties of Powders

In this study, the performance of two commercial rotational shear cell instruments is compared with respect to cell geometry and test procedure. Presented at AAPS 2008.

Metals
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Characterisation of Powder Bulk, Dynamic Flow and Shear Properties in Relation to Die Filling

The bulk, dynamic flow and shear properties of tungsten, aluminium and two types of glass beads are investigated and correlated with the ability to fill a die. The results show how effectiveness of die filling correlates well with many powder properties and how entrained air is a critical factor.

General
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Investigating the Confined and Unconfined Flow Behavior of Powders

This paper examines the mechanisms associated with powder flow, contrasting the way in which materials behave when confined and unconfined. The different extrusion behaviour of cohesive and non-cohesive powders and their ability to switch from 'good' to 'bad' flowability is described.

General
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Quantifying Experience in Powder Processing

Enshrined in the concept of Quality by Design is the premise that optimized pharmaceutical manufacturing requires detailed understanding of products and processes. With this in mind, many benefits can be achieved by combining modern powder characterization techniques with real processing experience.

General
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Predicting the In-Process Behaviour of Powders

A knowledge of which existing formulations do or do not process well, in conjunction with comprehensive powder characterization, enables the processing behavior of new powders to be predicted before they are introduced into a plant.

General
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Process Relevant Powder Characterization - A Powerful Tool for Development and Troubleshooting

This article examines modern strategies for powder characterization in the pharmaceutical industry, with reference to commonly used technologies. It explores the value of systems that offer multiple methodologies in a single instrument, examining the way they provide a cost- and time- effective route to generating data that support product development and process operation.

General
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Modern Tools for Hopper Design

This study reviews the application of the Hopper Design Software package for the FT4 Powder Rheometer. Drawing on the characterization capabilities of this universal powder tester, the software improves access to well-established hopper design methodologies, speeding up and simplifying compilation and interpretation of the required data.

Pharmaceutical
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Dynamic Powder Characterization for Dry Powder Inhalers (DPI) Formulation

In this discussion, we consider the way powders behave in DPIs and examine the dynamic and bulk powder properties that help to explain the mechanisms that dominate performance. Experimental studies illustrate the impact of blending on the in situ formation of fines and the effect this has on powder properties and aerosolization characteristics.

Pharmaceutical
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Better Wet Granulation: Development, Scale-up and Manufacture

Wet granulation is a common unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry yet accurate endpoint detection remains a challenge. Here we examine the contribution that dynamic powder testing can make, highlighting its ability to detect the transition from wet mass to granulate with the required sensitivity. Quantification of this transition point, with a measure that is independent of process scale, accelerates development and scale-up and improves manufacture.

Pharmaceutical
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Characterisation of the Flow Properties of a Novel Spray Dried Tobramycin Powder For Dry Powder Inhalation (DPI)

In this study, the FT4 Powder Rheometer was used to characterize a novel spray dried powder of tobramycin developed for dry powder inhalation, in particular with respect to evaluation of the powder flow behaviour under moderate/low stress conditions.

Pharmaceutical
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To Measure the Additive Effect of Magnesium Stearate and Stear-O-Wet on Wet Granulation

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of magnesium stearate and stear-o-wet on wet granulation while adding lubricants during wet granulation and measuring their rheological and thermal properties. The FT4 Powder Rheometer was used to measure compressibility, basic flowability energy (BFE), specific flow energy (SFE), bulk density and permeability (measured as pressure drop).

Pharmaceutical
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Flow and Compaction Characteristics of A Direct Compression Formulation (2)

Direct compression is one of the major process technologies for tablet manufacture in industry. It shows advantages compared to other processes including labor and cost saving, fewer manufacturing steps, and greater suitability for moisture sensitive API, etc. In this process, the flow properties and compaction properties of dry blends affect the final quality of compressed tablets, such as hardness and weight variation, etc. So, the characterization of these properties are critical in tableting process development. In this study, a 3x2 DOE was used to study the effect of excipients on the compaction properties (Yield Pressure) and flow properties of the blends. Presented at AAPS 2009.

Pharmaceutical
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Flow and Compaction Characteristics of A Direct Compression Formulation

The flow properties of blends, a very important factor of tableting process, affects the characteristics of powder transfer and die filling consistency, hence, the quality of the final products. In this study, a model formulation containing Titanium Dioxide, as a simulated water insoluble API was used to evaluate the effect of common pharmaceutical glidants on the flow characteristics. Presented at AAPS 2009.

Pharmaceutical
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Determining Endpoint for Wet Granulation Using Rheological and Effusivity Measurement

Though wet granulation is a common unit operation its accurate end-point determination still remains a challenge in pharmaceutical industry.The objective of this study was to determine wet granulation endpoint using microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel 101) by solid state rheological and effusivity measurements. It was determined that powder rheology, using the FT4 Powder Rheometer, measurements are a useful tool to determine the end point in wet granulation. Presented at AAPS 2009.

Pharmaceutical
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The Effect of Fluid-Bed Granulation Process on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Powders and Granules

The objectives were to compare and characterize the physical and mechanical properties of powders and granules after the fluid-bed granulation process. To investigate and identify the critical process parameters (CPPs) for fluid-bed granulation.By understanding the granulation process and the interactions between the process variables, both process efficiency and critical quality can be achieved in ensuring consistency of granule flowability, tabletability and product bioavailability.

Pharmaceutical
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An Investigation into the Wall Friction Angle of a Range of Low Friction Materials Used in the Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Processing Equipment

Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer this study evaluated a total of 15 coupons, with different wall material, surface roughness and surface treatment, in conjunction with a common pharmaceutical excipient, Respitose ML001. The geometry of a mass flow hopper was calculated using the Hopper Design Software supplied with the FT4.

Pharmaceutical
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Implementing QbD: Powder Characterization for Design Space Definition

For those seeking to adopt a Quality by Design approach to pharmaceutical development and manufacture, effective definition of the ‘design space’ is a key activity. This paper considers the role of modern powder testers such as the FT4 Powder Rheometer from Freeman Technology, within this context.

Pharmaceutical
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Measuring Powder Behaviour in Relation to QbD

Characterising and understanding powder flowability is critical, particularly in relation to the pharmaceutical industry’s Quality by Design (QbD) and PAT initiatives. Correlating processability ranking with measured flow properties enables the identification of acceptable process behaviour for each of these parameters, thus defining the design space.

Pharmaceutical
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Choosing the Best Construction Material for Powder Processing Equipment

Selecting the best material of construction is a crucial part of the plant design process, the aim being to balance performance and cost to best advantage. For powder processors, choosing a material that eases flow can pay dividends throughout the lifetime of the plant, but there is limited data on which to base this decision. A study by Freeman Technology highlights the role of the FT4 Powder Rheometer, a universal powder tester, for such studies and provides some valuable comparative data for a wide range of commercially available materials and finishes.

Ceramic
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Optimizing Ceramic Powder Specification

Powder characterization that is both reliable and relevant to the process makes it easier to develop a blend or granulate suitable for ceramic powder processing applications. The study described here highlights correlations between dynamic, bulk and shear properties, and performance in die-filling operations.

Pharmaceutical
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Enhancing Dose Consistency

Selecting the best construction material is an important element of plant design. For powder handling applications, choosing a surface finish that promotes smooth, controlled flow through the process is key to trouble-free production and will enhance operability over the long term. In this article, Tim Freeman, Freeman Technology, and Dr Karlheinz Seyfang, Harro Höfliger, look at technology helping to get it right.

Cosmetics
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Analytical Techniques for Successful Cosmetic Compact Manufacture

Formulating and manufacturing cosmetic compacts to deliver market-leading performance characteristics requires a high degree of powder processing expertise. This paper considers the measurement of some of the most appropriate powder properties of both the formulation and the finished product.

Pharmaceutical
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The Characterisation of the Physical Properties of Wet Masses

For this work, a grade of lactose (food grade, Dairy Crest) and a microcrystalline cellulose (PH101, FMC) were used to create four mixtures - 0:100, 50:50, 70:30 and 85:15 Lactose:MCC. The mixtures were then granluated using a range of moisture contents by means of a fixed processing methodology in terms of low shear mix time, water addition rate and high shear granulation time. The properties of the resultant wet masses were then immediately evaluated using some of the methodologies available with the FT4 Powder Rheometer (universal powder tester) - dynamic testing, permeability, compressibility and shear testing. Presented at WCPT6 2010.

Pharmaceutical
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Characterising Powders for Better Solids Processing

The pharmaceutical industry is moving towards greater emphasis on efficient manufacture. The foundations for successful manufacture must be laid during the early stages of product development. This analysis illustrates how considering processing from the start can eliminate the root cause of long-term manufacturing problems. It also serves to highlight the way precise powder characterization leads to understanding that informs every stage of the product life cycle.

Pharmaceutical
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Understanding Powder Behaviour

The pharmaceutical industry relies on analytical technologies for many testing and monitoring purposes, including formulation analysis, quality control and the identification of counterfeit products. Manufacturers of modern powder testing equipment, such as the FT4 Powder Rheometer, have extended their application and added new, dynamic methodologies, bringing into one system a set of complementary techniques that together are able to better reflect a powder’s response to processing conditions.

Pharmaceutical
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Powder Testing for Better Formulation

Almost all pharmaceutical products exist in powder form at some point on their way to finished product, so an understanding of powder behaviour is critical to the development of an optimal formulation. Effective powder characterisation is one of the foundations of formulation. As the demands on formulators increase, there is a growing need for more efficient, information-rich testing strategies that can support a knowledge-led approach with the necessary manufacturing focus. Instruments that combine shear, bulk and dynamic test methods are one solution. Such systems are cost- and time-efficient, and quantify powder behaviour using a number of complementary parameters that in combination maximise insight. The resulting information accelerates formulation towards optimised and efficient long-term manufacture.

Pharmaceutical
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Measuring Powder Properties

Characterization of DPI formulations using a powder rheometer helps developers understand volumetric dosing and aerosolization performance.

Pharmaceutical
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Ask the Expert: Why is Effective Powder Characterisation so Important for the Pharmaceutical Industry?

Effective powder characterisation can lead to better powder understanding and control, which is crucial in the pharmaceutical industry where the majority of APIs are delivered as powders. Tim Freeman explains why powder characterisation is not always an easy task and offers advice on how best to obtain rich data sets that can be used to predict powder behaviour in different situations.

General
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Understanding Powder Caking

Caking, or unwanted agglomeration, presents major problems in powder processing, capable of making even those powders that are normally free-flowing and easily processable, challenging. Its control depends on understanding the influence of, and closely managing, environmental conditions. Modern powder testers help make the link between different variables and the tendency towards caking, providing useful information for the determination of an optimal environment.

Pharmaceutical
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Powder Testing Techniques for Quality by Design (QbD)

Quality by Design demands the detailed consideration of processing issues during the earlier stages of development. This poses the question of how best to inject the necessary expertise from the outset. Analytical tools, such as modern powder testers, that ease communication across the traditional formulation/process development/production boundaries can help.

Pharmaceutical
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To Develop and Evaluate New Methodology for Excipients Compatibility Together with API’s using Rheology

Most of the Drug Dosage Forms are made from solid powder state (Tablets & Capsules) the flow of which can result in variability in dosage unit and production.The aim of this study is to give better understanding of the flow energies related to powder with the addition of different API's at different concentration levels. Presented at AAPS 2010.

Pharmaceutical
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Novel Applications of Traditional Lubricants Using a Dry Particle Coating Technique to Improve the Functionality of Cohesive Drug or Excipient Powders

Powder bulk functionalities such as flow, fluidization and aerosolization are fundamental to the handling and performance of many pharmaceutical products. This study investigated the ffect of surface engineering via mechanical dry coating with a traditional lubricant on the bulk functionailities of either a milled cohesive excipient powder or micronized drug powders.

Pharmaceutical
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The Relationship Between Powder Flow Properties and Dosing Machine Geometry for Pharmaceutical Die Filling Applications

Filling machines have complex geometry through which powder has to flow and a significant requirement for filling processes when manufacturing pharmaceutical solid doses is to ensure weight uniformity. The characteristics of powdered formulations considerably affect their behaviour in filling processes and hence affect the ability to generate consistent filling masses. The results in this study have shown that the powder flow characteristics have to be compatible with the conditions imposed in the process and equipment geometry in order to achieve the target weight uniformity.

General
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10 Years in Powders. Making Powders and Processes Fit

Significant efforts have been made to understand how the powder properties measured by modern universal powder testers relate to in-process behavior. This ‘work in progress’ holds the key to a better powder processing future across all industry sectors.With reproducible, relevant powder characterization now a reality, there is an opportunity to understand how to formulate and tailor powder blends, and select and design process equipment, that have the compatibility necessary for long-term, efficient manufacturing.

General
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Modern Pharmaceuticals Interview: The Importance of Efficient Powder Processing

In this interview, Tim Freeman discusses Freeman Technology’s approach to characterising powders, and the unique benefits the FT4 Powder Rheometer provides in measuring process-relevant powder behaviour.

Pharmaceutical
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Effective Powder Processing Across the Pharma Life Cycle

Learn how using strategies for effective process development ensures manufacturing experience and expertise are appropriately applied at every stage of the product life cycle. Robust powder processes help support these goals. The application of powder rheology encourages a two-way dialogue between manufacturers and formulators.

Pharmaceutical
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Powder Characterisation for Inhaled Drug Delivery

Manipulating and controlling powder behaviour is a demanding but essential element of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The development and production of dry powder inhalers (DPIs) exemplifies and highlights the difficulties faced, arguably presenting the industry with its toughest powder engineering challenge. Fine by necessity, to ensure deposition in the lung, dry powder formulations tend to be highly cohesive and difficult to handle. The need to understand the aerosolisation processes that ensure successful drug delivery adds an additional and substantial layer of complexity.

Pharmaceutical
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Powder Characterisation for Efficient Processing: Moving to a New Manufacturing Model

As the pharmaceutical industry works to transform manufacturing practice, it is timely to examine the role of supporting technologies. One such technology is powder testing, which holds the key to more efficient powder processing.

General
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Controlling the Impact of Humidity

There is a widespread misconception that any moisture worsens powder properties, but in practice all materials respond differently. This article examines efficient methods for quantifying the impact of humidity and presents illustrative data for limestone and microcrystalline cellulose, two very different industrially important powders. The results show how multi-faceted powder characterisation gives comprehensive insight into the effect of moisture uptake, providing a sound basis upon which to develop effective strategies for humidity control.

Pharmaceutical
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The Characterisation of Powder Properties in the Pharmaceutical Industry - The Implications of QBD for Solids Dose Manufacture

This paper illustrates how recent advances in powder characterisation allow process engineers to predict material behaviour during processing and how best to configure equipment settings for optimal powder / process / delivery system compatability with respect to tableting and inhalation systems. Furthermore, it also demonstrates how this information can then be fed back in at the development stage to provide processability specifications which generate true 'Quality by Design'.

General
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The Characterisation of Bulk Material Properties – the Need for a Multivariate Approach

This paper will cover the measurement of dynamic, bulk and shear properties of powders and how a comprehensive knowledge of this wide range of powder properties can help with the design and troubleshooting of particular processes by using specific examples.

Pharmaceutical
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Capsule Filling Performance of Powdered Formulations in Relation to Flow Characteristics

This study examines the ejection force and the dosing weight variation during a capsule filling process for twelve different formulations and shows how the results correlate with the powder characteristics obtained using a Powder Rheometer.

Pharmaceutical
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The Influence of Powder Flow Properties on the Filling of Dies and Capsules

This paper describes an approach to evaluating the suitability of powder properties based on Process Analytical Technology and Quality by Design principles. A model die filling rig, a real pocket dosing machine and a dosing disc type capsule filling machine are investigated respectively. The results clearly show how die filling effectiveness, as characterised by powder filling ratio, filling weight uniformity and plug ejection force, is dependant on a range of powder flow characteristics, with respect to individual machine and machine geometry.

General
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Consolidation of Powders - How to Evaluate the Effect of Vibration Induced Powder Compaction through Flow Property Measurement

This paper will present comparisons between the Carr's Compressibility Index/Hauser Ratio and the Consolidation Index, derived from Dynamic testing, for a range of powders. The results are also contrasted with a range of standard parameters derived from untapped samples and show how the Dynamic and shear testing methodologies provides a much more useful characterisation for the powder technologist.

Pharmaceutical
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The Application of QbD to Pharmaceutical Powder Processing

In order to better understand the relationship between powder properties and in-process behaviour, modern instrumental methods – such as powder rheometry and shear cell testing – have been employed to provide data on powder behaviour over a wide range of stress conditions. This poster gives an example of how powder characteristics and processing environments can be evaluated to generate the ‘Design Space’ necessary for the implementation of Quality by Design. Presented at UK PharmSci 2010.

Pharmaceutical
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Measuring Meaningful Powder Flow Properties – the Limitations of ‘Compressibility Index’ Data

The Compressibility Index (the relationship between a poured bulk density and tapped bulk density), developed by Carr, is still widely used within the pharmaceutical industry as the main, and often only, measure of powder flowability. This comparison of the powder’s poured and tapped densities, although a pragmatic solution for its day, can be too simplistic and not sufficiently sensitive to describe the changes that can occur within the powder bed. It therefore also has the potential to provide misleading information.

Pharmaceutical
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Powder Rheology as a Tool to Predict Impact of Different Sources of Excipient on Tablet Compression

Powder rheology is utilized to characterize powder behavior and provide data on key properties such as compressibility, permeability, and basic flow energy. Excipients in a tablet formulation could strongly influence process scaleup, optimization, blend, and compression properties. Switching sources of excipients could profoundly impact processing. The impetus for this work is to evaluate if powder rheometry can be used as a tool to predict the impact of using an alternate source of raw material on compression characteristics of tablets. Presented at AAPS 2011.

Pharmaceutical
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Powder Rheology Analysis as Tool for the Characterisation of Interactive Powder Mixtures

In this study powder rheology analysis has been used to characterise interactive inhalation powder mixtures. With the diverse techniques provided by the Freeman FT4 Powder Rheometer, especially the possibility of collecting data during air entrainment, it was expected to gain a better understanding of interactions within the powder blends. It was of particular interest to investigate how the measured forces are affected by the induction of air through the powder and how this data can be correlated to the results of other dispersion measurements. Presented at DDL 2011.

Pharmaceutical
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The Impact of Loaded Drug Dose and the Surface Roughness of the Coarse Lactose Carrier to the Fluidisation Characteristics of Dry Powder Inhaler Formulations

This study shows how to develop a method for measuring the pressure drop across the powder bed during fluidisation experiments with DPI formulations. Presented at Powder Flow 2011.

Pharmaceutical
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The Attraction And Challenge Of Continuous Manufacturing

This article looks at the potential benefits of continuous manufacturing, highlights the way analytical practice may need to change to support new manufacturing models, and discusses the need for techniques, including dynamic powder testing, that support intelligent processing.

General
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Dynamic Testing Methods Pinpoint Parameters Suitable for Further Insight into In-Process Powder Behavior

Dynamic powder testing methods pinpoint parameters suitable for further insight into in-process powder behaviour. The use of a Powder Rheometer has enhanced powder testing capabilities at the research center of AZO GmbH + Co. KG, Osterburken, Germany. The powder tester has contributed positively to the company’s approach to equipment design and powder processing plant specification.

General
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Quantifying the Impact of Humidity on Powder Properties

Of the many factors that influence powder behaviour, moisture, or humidity, is perhaps one of the most instantly recognised. Adding even small amounts of water to a powder can transform its properties. This paper explores the application of dynamic, shear and bulk property measurements to assess in detail the impact of humidity and gather relevant knowledge. It includes experimental data that illustrate the breadth of response of different powders to the presence of moisture.

Pharmaceutical
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Optimising Tabletting Processes with Quality by Design

We all know the importance of particle size distribution when it comes to processing the perfect tablet, but there are also many other factors that must be considered. Authors from Freeman Technology and Malvern Instruments step forward to give you their insight on enhancing tabletting with quality by design and analytical techniques.

General
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Using Powder Characterisation Methods to Assess Blending Behaviour

In this study we consider the informational requirements needed to achieve better blending, and highlight the potential value of dynamic powder testing in this context. Correlations of positron emission tomography (PET) data with flow energy measurements suggest that dynamic data may be a reliable predictor of blending behaviour and consequently useful for the development and optimisation of blending processes.

General
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Advanced Powder Characterisation Techniques for Process and Product Development

There are now technologies available that can assist in measuring relevant powder properties, this paper illustrates how recent developments in powder characterisation allows the prediction of material behaviour for optimal powder/process compatibility by means of illustrative examples.

Pharmaceutical
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The Flowability of Wet & Dry Powders

This paper looks at why powder characterisation is important, and that whilst powders are used so extensively throughout the pharmaceutical industry, they are amongst the most difficult materials to characterise.

Pharmaceutical
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The Next Wave of PAT: Advancing Process Understanding to Process Control

This article aims to discuss process control and implementation in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. It will also convey the importance of PAT in pharma and help encourage and spur ongoing efforts on development, implementation, and disclosure of process control to enable FDA’s vision of PAT.

General
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Quantifying the Effect of Ambient Moisture on Powder Flow Properties

This study investigates the effect of exposing powders to increasing humidity and evaluating the changes to the powder’s dynamic flow, bulk, shear and aeration properties. Presented at AAPS 2012.

Pharmaceutical
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PAT In-Depth Focus - Correlation between Powder Rheology Data and Processability in Solid Dosage Form Manufacturing

The Quality by Design (QbD) paradigm is being introduced to more and more R&D and manufacturing units in the pharmaceutical industry. This article will show some preliminary results from powder characterisation and how the data correlates to process performance and drug product quality in solid dosage form development projects.

Pharmaceutical
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Powder Rheology as a Tool to Determine Optimum Blending Time

Powder Rheology can be utilized to characterize powder behavior and provide data on key properties such as compressibility, permeability, and basic flow energy. Uniformity of extra granular actives in a final blend comprised of a dry granulation is critical and is achieved by milling the active with excipients and/or mixing for extended periods. The purpose of this study is to understand the application of powder rheometry as a tool to predict the optimum blending time leading to uniform tablets. Presented at AAPS 2012.

Additive Manufacturing
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Polymers for 3D Printing

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is an additive manufacturing technique typically used for rapid prototyping and low volume production of functional components. The process employs a laser beam to sinter powdered material, binding it together to create a solid structure. The laser selectively fuses pre‐defined areas of a powder bed by scanning cross‐sections generated from a 3D digital description of the required part. After each cross‐section is scanned, a new layer of material is applied on top, and the process is repeated until the part is completed.

Pharmaceutical
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Testing for Tableting

Powder testing has progressed significantly since the turn of the millennium, delivering major benefits in tableting applications. At a time when greater efficiency is required, and continuous manufacturing is becoming commonplace, process-relevant powder characterisation is gaining importance.

Chemical
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Understand the Effects of Moisture on Powder Behavior

Numerous bulk powders are used in the chemical process industries (CPI), and each powder behaves differently, sometimes counterintuitively. The relationship between humidity and powder behavior is complicated. Therefore, comprehensive testing is required.

Pharmaceutical
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A Investigation into the Effects of Formulation, Vessel Scale and Method of Water Addition on Batch Granulation

It has been demonstrated that there is a link between the quality of a wet mass/dry granulate (as measured by certain flow properties) to critical quality attributes of the resultant tablet. This study extends this work by identifying and quantifying the flow properties of granulation wet masses in relation to their batch manufacture using different vessel scales, formulations and water addition methods.

General
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Homogeneous and Non-Homogeneous Caking and Crusting in Powders

Materials are often stored for extended periods during processing and some will gain strength due to particle/particle interaction. This is generally referred to as ‘caking’ which can detrimentally impact processability and product quality. This study identifies that powder rheometry provides a process relevant way of measuring properties that indicate the progression of caking as a function of time and relative humidity.

General
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Investigations into Homogeneous and Non-Homogeneous Caking and Crusting in Powders using Powder Rheology

This paper presents case studies which evaluate the flow properties of different powder systems that are affected by chemical, moisture and temperature based caking mechanisms. It shows how the propensity to cake can be effectively quantified with respect to the powders’ flow properties and how this can assist with understanding and adapting the processing environment to retain optimal processability.

Pharmaceutical
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Filling of Powders for Dry Powder Inhalation Using a Vacuum Drum Filler

This study investigates the influence of powder properties on the filling behavior of a vacuum drum filler for DPI application.

Cement
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Powder Testing Strategies

The properties of alternative cement constituents used in clinker substitution vary markedly depending on their source, and different processing conditions are applied to ensure their successful incorporation to form a product that meets well-defined specifications. The industry has an ongoing need to refine and optimise processes to ensure a consistent product output despite changing feedstocks.

Pharmaceutical
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A Quality by Design (QbD) Approach to Continuous Tablet Manufacture

The pharmaceutical industry is looking to continuous processing to enhance production efficiency and product quality, in line with guidance from regulatory agencies. It is therefore necessary to define and link material quality parameters, at all stages during processing, to those of the final product. This study investigates the performance of a continuous granulation system and shows how key properties of the granules, which are a direct function of the operational conditions of the granulator, can be identified, measured and linked directly to the Critical Quality Attributes of the tablets manufactured from these granules.

General
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Measurement and Quantification of Caking in Powders

Significant numbers of materials in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, from raw feeds, additives and intermediates through to manufactured products, are sold as free-flowing, easily processable powders. This paper evaluates the change in flow properties of powders subjected to moisture. It shows how the propensity to cake can be effectively quantified with respect to the powders’ flow properties and how this can assist with understanding and adapting the processing environment to retain optimal processability. Moreover it shows how in some cases caking is not a homogeneous progression and how such non-homogeneity can be evaluated and quantified.

Metals
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Investigation of the Influence of Atomic Layer Deposition Coatings on Powder Rheology

The current economic climate necessitates the reduction in the costs of industrial manufacturing processes while maintaining high productivity and product quality. In this study, direct evidence of the effect of the nanoscale ceramic coatings is shown via a significant improvement in flow properties of dry particles, including dynamic, bulk and shear properties obtained using a FT4 Powder Rheometer, and a marked reduction in slurry viscosity at high solid loads.

Additive Manufacturing
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Powder Rheology of Steel Powders for Additive Manufacturing

Powder rheology provides a novel tool for advanced evaluation of dry flow properties of metal powders. In this study, four similar stainless-steel MIM powders aimed for additive manufacturing were characterized with a Powder Rheometer. The research showed that powder rheology is a powerful tool for identification of the suitable flow properties related to specific processes.

General
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Quantifying the Effect of Caking by Powder Rheometry

This poster presents some key results from three case studies which evaluate the flow properties of three different powder systems that are affected by chemical, moisture and temperature based caking mechanisms. The study shows that, whatever the mechanism, the propensity to cake can be effectively quantified with respect to the powders' flow properties and how this, in turn, can assist with understanding and ultimately adapting the processing environment to limit caking and retain optimal processability.

Coatings
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Batch Variability in Spray Coating Applications

In spray coating applications, identifying and quantifying which powder properties correlate with the most efficient performance in a process allows new formulations to be optimised without the significant cost of running samples through the process to assess suitability, making considerable savings in terms of time and raw materials, and minimising wastage due to rejected products.

Additive Manufacturing
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The Application of Powder Rheology in Additive Manufacturing

This paper uses four case studies to demonstrate the limitations of single parameter characterisation and how the rheological properties of several metal powders used in Additive Manufacturing (AM) applications are used to establish in-process performance.

General
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Uniaxial Powder Tester Brochure - EN

Uniaxial Powder Tester Brochure - English

General
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Lenterra Flow Sensor System Brochure - EN

Lenterra Flow Sensor System Brochure - English

General
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Lenterra Wall Shear Stress System Brochure - EN

Lenterra Wall Shear Stress System Brochure - English

Chemical
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Assessing Batch-to-Batch Variability of Bulk Chemicals

Identifying and quantifying which powder properties are conducive to efficient processing allows new formulations to be optimised without the significant cost of running samples through the process to assess suitability, making considerable savings in terms of time and raw materials, and minimising wastage due to out of specification products.

General
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Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to Evaluate the Effects of Environmental Humidity

Humidity is an ever present feature in the atmosphere and the absorption/adsorption of moisture by powdered and bulk materials can lead to significant changes to their physical properties. This in turn can have a dramatic impact on powder behaviour resulting in intermittent flow, process interruptions and product quality issues.

Pharmaceutical
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Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to Characterise DPI Formulations and to Understanding Dosing and Aerosolisation Performance

Developing powders that exhibit predictable and reliable behaviour in an inhalation process presents a genuine challenge for formulation scientists. Active ingredients tend to be highly cohesive and rarely flow freely making both dosing and dispersion problematic. Addressing these issues requires an understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to successful drug delivery along with the ability to quantify the relevant properties.

General
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FT4 Powder Rheometer Brochure - EN

The FT4 Powder Rheometer was originally designed to characterise the rheology, or flow properties, of powders. This remains a primary function today, but the instrument, accessories and methodologies have been continuously developed to the point where the FT4 is now considered a universal powder tester.

Pharmaceutical
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Capsule Filling

In the pharmaceutical industry, the blending of a small fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with a bulk excipient, and then subsequent processing though various unit operations, is an essential part of many manufacturing processes. The way that the blend behaves in downstream processes will be a function of the properties of the components of that blend.

Coatings
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Fluidisation and Processability of Powder Coatings

The high level of performance and low environmental impact associated with powder coating makes it an attractive option for a range of applications. Powder coating technology does not require a solvent and therefore avoids the generation of volatile organic emissions associated with their use. However, the need to fluidise a fine powder so that it behaves like a liquid, presents its own challenges and requires materials that flow readily and uniformly during the process.

General
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The Influence of Particle Size and Shape on Flow Properties

The size and shape of the particles are important factors in influencing powder behaviour.

General
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The Influence of Storage and Handling

This application note considers the evaluation of bulk excipients for tableting and the impact of storage and handling conditions.

General
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Characterising Wet Masses using the FT4 Powder Rheometer

The presence of free water can fundamentally influence powder flow properties.

General
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1ml Shear Cell - Measuring the Flow Properties of Small Samples

The Freeman Technology 1ml Shear Cell allows very small powder samples to be automatically tested, minimising the consumption of scarce and valuable material.

General
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Automated Hopper Design Software

The Hopper Design Software from Freeman Technology could provide substantial savings for your company by allowing you to calculate hopper parameters using the FT4 Powder Rheometer.

Cosmetics
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Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to Test Cosmetic Compacts

Freeman Technology has developed two accessories that can be used to evaluate the quality of cosmetic powder compacts. Both accessories can be used with three sizes of compact and utilise a novel vacuum base removing the need complex and intrusive mechanical fixings.

General
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Qualification of the FT4 Powder Rheometer using CRM116 Limestone Powder

Used as a reference standard for the complete range of test methodologies offered by the FT4.

Cement
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Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to Evaluate the Flow Characteristics of Cement Powders & their Components

Cement is produced in vast quantities in a wide variety of formulations that fulfil a diverse range of end-user technical requirements. Variability in feedstocks or in processing conditions can lead to unanticipated changes in product flow properties.

Pharmaceutical
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A QbD Approach to Continuous Tablet Manufacture

This study summarises initial work between Freeman Technology and GEA which has explored the relationship between granule properties and variation in forumulation and processing parameters in a continuous manufacturing environment.

General
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Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to Evaluate Vibration Induced Consolidation

There are many types of process devices that employ vibration - feeders, sieves, discharge aids, compactors. Equally environmental from plant equipment, or that experienced during transportation, can impose unexpected packing changes on the powder and cause blockages. Correctly understanding how materials behave when subjected to vibration can be the difference between processing and significant down time.

Additive Manufacturing
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Optimising Additive Manufacturing with the FT4 Powder Rheometer

The results of this study demonstrate the need for relevant and comprehensive powder characterisation, particularly in AM processes which rely heavily on precise and accurate layer deposition, which can only be assured by the use of powders with suitable and consistent properties.

Additive Manufacturing
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Applications of the FT4 Powder Rheometer in Additive Manufacturing

The results of this study demonstrate the need for relevant and comprehensive powder characterisation, particularly in AM processes which rely heavily on precise and accurate layer deposition, which can only be assured by the use of powders with suitable and consistent properties

Pharmaceutical
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Particle Size Independent Variation of Bulk Excipients

A robust method of quantifying the variations in batches of excipients that contribute to differences in downstream process behaviour enables a design space of acceptable raw material properties to be established.

General
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The Benefits of Multivariate Analysis over Shear Cell Analysis

Shear Cell testing is a well-established technique for measuring the incipient flow properties of a powder under consolidation, an important property with a strong correlation to powder behaviour in a hopper. However, the technique is often used beyond its original remit in an attempt to understand dynamic, lower-stress unit operations (such as blending, feeding, conveyance, milling and fluidisation) as well as static regimes such as storage. In these circumstances, shear cell test results can be inconclusive, and may not readily differentiate between samples that perform differently in the process.

General
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The Value of Measuring Force and Torque Dynamic Tests

During a Dynamic Flow test using the FT4 Powder Rheometer®, a patented helical blade descends through the powder bed along a precisely defined helical path. As it descends, the powder resists the motion of the blade both rotationally and axially, generating both torque and force on the blade. A unique and patented feature of the FT4 is the ability to measure both the axial force and rotational torque during Dynamic Flow tests.

Pharmaceutical
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The Influence of Roller Compaction Process Variables on Granule Properties

This application note details the joint study undertaken by Freeman Technology and Gerteis Maschinen+Processengineering, to investigate how process parameters influenced the properties of the dry granulate of a placebo formulation.

General
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An Introduction to Uniaxial Shear Testing

This article describes how uniaxial testing and compares it to biaxial testing. The article then explains the challenges of uniaxial testing and describes how those challenges can be overcome with advanced testing equipment and methodology. Published in Powder Bulk Engineering - Dec 2015.

General
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Limitations and Risks of Flow Function Analysis

The results from shear cell tests can be graphically represented in several ways. The most reliable representation is a plot of the measured Shear Stress as a function of Applied Normal Stress, as these data are genuine representations of a powder’s ability to flow following consolidation.

General
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Limitations of Mathematically Derived Parameters from Shear Cell Testing

Shear Cell testing was originally designed to determine the incipient flow of continuous, cohesive powders under applied stress in order to simulate flow from a hopper/silo. When testing powders of this type to understand hopper behaviour, Shear Cell testing is a robust and complementary technique to the other methodologies employed by the FT4 Powder Rheometer.

General
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Characterising Batch to Batch Variability in Gypsum Products

A method of accurately quantifying differences in the properties of gypsum batches that are known to impact process performance is critical to ensuring batch consistency and product quality.

General
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Developing a Design Space for a Die Filling Operation

Filling is a common operation across all industries, although fill weights and tolerances vary widely. The factors that influence efficiency will depend upon the type of equipment being used. Some systems are purely gravity driven, whilst others rely on force-feeding, or a combination of both. The influence of each of the two mechanisms will depend on the geometry of the feedframe, the flow rate through the press and powder characteristics.

General
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Sachet Filling

Powder rheometry can identify properties of a powder or blend which result in uniform filling allowing for new formulations to be optimised.

Additives
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The Influence of Flow Additives on Powder Behaviour

Over a range of processes the relationship between flow additive and substrate is less well-understood. Due to the differing demands placed on powders by different processes, the relative influence of a given additive on a given substrate may not be consistent under all circumstances.

Cement
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Optimising the Flow Properties of Cement Powders by Surface Treatment

Surface treatment offers the opportunity to alter the flow properties of a powder in order to optimise process performance. However, a method of quantifying the influence of the treatment is required, to ensure that flow properties have been optimised without compromising other aspects of performance.

Ceramic
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Characterising Variable Performance in Ceramic Hot Isostatic Pressing

It is important that the sintering process does not unduly alter the shape of the part. Any change has to be managed within tight acceptance limits. Failure to achieve this can lead to a product that is out of specification and not fit for purpose. A method of predicting shrinkage based on bulk properties of the ceramic will allow for the spray-drying process to be optmised and the resulting powder precursors to be screened, leading to increased productivity and reduced waste.

General
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Comparison of Shear Cell Sizes on the FT4 Powder Rheometer

This application note compares the shear cell sizes available with the FT4 Powder Rheometer.

General
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The Development, Operating & Measurement Protocols for a Uniaxial Tester

This paper describes the challenges associated with developing a uniaxial tester, in terms of operational methodologies and mechanical design.

General
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Predicting Flow Performance in Screw Feeders

This study, with Gericke AG, demonstrates how to generate a design and operating model based around robust measurements of rheological properties of powders and standard Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis.

Food
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Process Relevant Properties of Drink Powders

In this study, three similar powdered formulations were produced for dispensing in vending machines. The three formulations were characterised using an FT4 Powder Rheoemter, which revealed clear and repeatable differences that varied with respect to test conditions.

General
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Understanding the Impact of High Shear Blending

It is important to understand the influence of any given unit operation on downstream performance, as incompatibility can lead to a product that is out of specification and not fit for purpose. Ensuring that downstream performance has not been detrimentally affected by upstream processes requires an understanding of how the powder and the process interact with each other.

Battery
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Understanding Powder Behaviour in Battery Production

This study illustrates how properties measured using the FT4 Powder Rheometer can be used to predict in-process performance in the manufacture of batteries.

General
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In-Line PAT for High Shear Wet Granulation by Measuring Drag Force Flow

The DFF sensor enables the evolution of granule properties to quantified in-line and real-time which represents a major step forward in understanding the process, and offers the potential to develop enhanced control strategies.

General
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FT4 Powder Rheometer Overview Poster

A summary of the FT4 Powder Rheometer's methodologies: Dynamic Flowability, Aeration, Consolidation, Compressibility, Permeability and Shear Cell / Wall Friction.

Battery
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Evaluating Processability of Flux Powders

S:\Technical\Projects\PJ065_UK Website Redesign\Literature Downloads\APP27_Evaluating-Processability-of-Flux-Powders.pdf

General
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Quantifying Caking using the FT4 Powder Rheometer

In this study, the dynamic method was used to measure the flow energy of powder samples before and after caking to quantify changes in flowability.

Additive Manufacturing
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Application of Powder Rheology for Evaluating the Flow Behaviour of Powders for Additive Manufacturing

This study investigates the flow behaviour of samples of a commonly used titanium alloy sources from different suppliers and produced using different manufacturing methods.

Catalyst
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Comparing the Flow Behaviour of FCC Catalysts using the FT4 Powder Rheometer

In this study, FCC catalysts with differing fines content, were characterised using the FT4 Powder Rheometer with the aim of understanding the observed variation in process behaviour, in particular, the propensity of some powders to form weakly bound clusters, which influence the entrainment rate due to differences in the aerodynamic properties compared with independent particles.

Additives
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Evaluating Flow Aid Distribution using Magnetically Assisted Impaction Coating

This study compares the flow properties of a substrate, when blended with a flow aid using MAIC or a V-blender. The resulting blends were tested using an FT4 Powder Rheometer to evaluate their rheological properties. The study also investigates the effect of flow aid concentration on samples blended using MAIC.

Additive Manufacturing
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Enhancing the Use & Reuse of Metal Powder for Additive Manufacturing

This presentation describes how powder rheometry is being applied to develop an increased understanding of how powders perform in AM processes.

General
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Using Powder Flow Measurements to Predict the Performance of Powder Feeders

This study demonstrates how it is possible to generate a design and operating model based around the measurement of robust rheological properties of powders and a standard multiple linear regression (MLR) technique.

General
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Development of a Multivariate Model for Predicting the Performance of Powder Feeders

This study is designed to evaluate the potential of rapidly generating a simple and robust performance model for two types of auger powder feeders based on the accurate determination of powder properties and using a standard multiple linear regression (MLR) technique.

General
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The Challenges of Powder Characterization

This article introduces the challenges associated with predicting powder flowability and discusses how understanding powder behaviour can benefit process performance. Published in Powder Bulk Engineering (July 2017)

Food
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Testing Large Particles with the FT4

Using customised test programs and bespoke combinations where necessary, materials with a large particle size, or extreme aspect ratios, can also be successfully characterised.

General
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Measuring the Flow Properties of Consolidated, Conditioned and Aerated Powders

This paper compares powder flowability measurements using the two methodologies available from an FT4 Powder Rheometer.

General
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An Introduction to the Lenterra Drag Force Flow Sensor

Characterising the flow behaviour of materials in-process offers valuable opportunities to enhance the operational efficiency of various powder handling processes but is not yet routine due to a lack of suitable technology.

General
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Process Monitoring with the Lenterra Drag Force Flow Sensor: An Introduction to Data Processing

This application note introduces the raw data the sensor records and explains how these are processed to generate metrics for process monitoring. The aim is to provide the understanding required for successful implementation of the technology as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT).

Pharmaceutical
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Application of an In-Line DFF Sensor for Monitoring the Addition of Liquid Binders

In this study, a Drag Force Flow (DFF) Sensor was used to monitor local flow forces during a typical mixing operation.

Metals
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Characterising Iron Alloy Powders to Optimise Near-Net Shape Manufacturing

This paper presents the results of a study to investigate how the flow properties of several iron based alloys, produced using different manufacturing methods, influences performance in a Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP) process.

General
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Characterising Powder Flow Properties - the Need for a Multivariate Approach

This paper provides an introduction to powder rheology, including a comparison with traditional techniques, and uses case studies to demonstrate how powder rheology can be applied to optimise production processes and enhance quality.

General
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Improving Near-Net Shape Manufacturing through Optimisation of the Raw Material

Near Net Shape (NNS) manufacturing describes a range of techniques which produce components close to the final size and shape. This minimises the need for additional machining, potentially reducing production costs by up to 60%. It is used to manufacture ferrous and non-ferrous parts across a range of industries, from biomedicine to aerospace.

General
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Industrially Relevant Powder Characterisation using a Uniaxial Powder Tester

In this study, 12 different powders representing a range of industries, including food and pharmaceutical materials, were evaluated using the UPT. Each sample was tested at low, intermediate and high MPS values, with repeat measurements conducted for each data point.

General
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In-Line Measurement of Powder Behaviour using a Drag Force Flow Sensor

In pharmaceutical operations such as High Shear Wet Granulation (HSWG) and blending, only properties of dried granules and/or final products are typically evaluated to understand the influence of changes in formulation and process design. However, in-line and real-time measurements can enable more proactive and flexible control of these unit operations without disrupting the process.

General
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Optimising Powder Processing - The Benefits of Cohesion

Powders are often described as free-flowing or cohesive, with a typical perception that cohesive powders present processing challenges whereas free-flowing powders are relatively problem free. However, simple flow categories do not describe the breadth of behaviour that powders can exhibit, nor identify how this changes depending on the process environment. Furthermore, perspectives vary on how to quantify 'cohesion'.

Additive Manufacturing
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Optimising Process Performance through Powder Rheology

This study uses the FT4 Powder Rheometer to evaluate dynamic flow, bulk and shear properties in two case studies.

Food
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Simulating Process Conditions for Improved Powder Flow Characterization

This study uses the FT4 Powder Rheometer to look at two cases studies: Sachet Filling and Mixing.

Food
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The Use of a Uniaxial Powder Tester to Characterize the Flowability of Food Powders

This study evaluates six common food powders: Potato Starch, Corn Starch, two types of Lactose, Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) and Plain Flour.

Pharmaceutical
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Process Monitoring with the Lenterra Drag Force Flow Sensor: High Shear Wet Granulation

This application note examines its application in high shear wet granulation (HSWG), a unit operation that is particularly popular in the pharmaceutical industry, for the preparation of tableting blends.

Pharmaceutical
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Influence of Powder Properties on Dosing Performance

In this study five lactose powders, with varying particle size distributions, were run through a dosator using four different size outlets.

Cement
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Storing up Problems? Methods and Benefits of Quantifying the Effects of Storage on Cement Flow Properties

This article considers the mechanisms associated with powder consolidation and presents experimental data contrasting the caking behaviour of two commercial cements. The results demonstrate the utility of dynamic powder characterisation in differentiating the sensitivity to storage conditions of closely equivalent products.

General
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Profitable Powder Processing - Enhancing Efficiency with the FT4 Powder Rheometer

This whitepaper summarises some of the key reasons that most often justify an investment in an FT4 Powder Rheometer, highlighting the rewards made accessible by the data the instrument generates.

General
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Introducing Uniaxial Powder Testing

This application note considers the merits of uniaxial testing, including low equipment costs and rapid measurement, and explores the benefits offered to powder handling industries.

General
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Offline Consolidation to Measure the uUYS of Powders

In this study, the offline Consolidation Station accessory for the Uniaxial Powder Tester (UPT) has been used to measure the uUYS of CRM116 Limestone Powder over a range of Major Principal Stress (MPS) levels.

General
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The Definitive Guide to Powder Characterization

This whitepaper showcases the analytical technology that Micromeritics offers to support the control and engineering of powder performance, from the structure of individual particles through to the flow of bulk powders. The aim is to provide an overview of how different techniques work, the data that can be generated and its value in industrial applications.

Pharmaceutical
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カプセル充填 (Capsule Filling)

良い性能を得ることができ、設計上の検討余地を与える。また物性を特定することは品質の高い製品を作ることになる。これらは生産性を高め、廃棄を減らす意味ではビジネス上の重要な要素となる。

Additive Manufacturing
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3Dプリンター用ポリマー樹脂 (Polymers for 3D Printing)

均一で再現できる層ができる粉体特性を確認することで、適合性を評価するプロセスで原料を使用する場合に余分なコストと時間をかけず、最適化された新しい配合や、適切な原料を特定できます。 この方法を用いれば、仕様から外れた最終製品の製造を低減できます

Additive Manufacturing
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AM (ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING)におけるFT4のアプリケーション (Applications of the FT4 in Additive Manufacturing)

粉体のパフォーマンスは、粉体がどのように流動し、どのように固まって層を形成するかによって決まります。 原材料にばらつきがあると、かさ密度と積層が不均一になり、伸張強度および表面の仕上げが低下する可能性があります。

Pharmaceutical
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ローラーコンパクターのプロセスにおける顆粒特性への影響 (The Influence of Roller Compactor Process Parameters on Granule Properties)

本アプリケーションノートはフリーマンテクノロジーTM 社(FT)とGerteis Maschinen+Processengineering 社(GMP)の共同研究でどのようなプロセスパラメータがプラセボによる乾式造粒に影響を与えるのか調査した。

Ceramic
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熱間等方圧加圧法で生成するセラミックスの性能を評価する (Characterising Variable Performance in Ceramic Hot Isostatic Pressing)

セラミック粉末のバルク特性に基づいて収縮を予測する方法は、噴霧乾燥プロセスを最適化し、得られる粉末前駆体をスクリーニングすることを可能にし、容認できない程度に収縮する可能性のあるバッチを排除し、 生産性の向上と廃棄物の削減を実現します。

Coatings
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スプレーコーティングにおける粉末のバッチによるばらつき (Batch Variability in Spray Coating Applications)

粉体の特性とプロセス上良好な結果との相関性を見極めて定量化すれば、膨大なコストをかけてサンプルをプロセスに投入し適合性評価を行うことなく、最適化された新しい配合組成を特定することができます。これにより、時間と原材料を大幅に節約し、不合格品の廃棄を最小限に抑えることができます。

General
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FT4によるウェットマスの特性評価 (Characterising Wet Masses using the FT4 Powder Rheometer)

このため、ウェットマスの流動特性をドライパウダーとの比較で評価できれば、それが湿式造粒などの生産プロセスにおける意図的な段階であるか、または湿潤条件への露出結果であるかに関わらず、水分の存在に対する粉体の反応についての有益な情報を得ることができます。

Coatings
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粉体塗料の流動化および性能評価 (Fluidisation and Processability of Powder Coatings)

高いレベルの性能を発揮し、周辺環境への影響が少ないことから、粉体塗料は幅広い用途に適した魅力的な選択肢となっています。粉体塗料の技術には溶剤が必要ありません。

Chemical
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化合物のバッチ間におけるばらつきの評価 (Assessing Batch to Batch Variability of Bulk Chemicals)

二酸化チタンはその鮮明な白色と高い屈折率のため、長年幅広い業界で顔料や乳白剤として利用されてきました。ただし、そのように幅広く使用されているにもかかわらず、この付着性の高い二酸化チタンを粉体として処理することは、多くの場合で困難を極めています。

Pharmaceutical
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粒径に関係しないバルク賦形剤のばらつき (Particle Size Independent Variation of Bulk Excipients)

結晶セルロース(MCC)は豊富で生産しやすく、かつ耐劣化性に優れていることから、製薬用賦形剤として長年使用されてきました。ただし、あらゆる賦形剤と同様に、供給される大量の材料にばらつきがあると製造工程にも同様にばらつきが生まれ、結果的に規格外の製品が生産されることになります。

General
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石膏製品におけるバッチ間のばらつきの評価 (Characterising Batch to Batch Variability in Gypsum Products)

石膏粉末は、建設業界では仕上げ材として、または受動的な防火対策として用いられ、医療用途では整形外科用ギプスの支持材として用いられるなど、世界中のさまざまな業界において使用されています。

General
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ダイ充填操作のための設計空間の開発 (Developing a Design Space for a Die Filling Operation)

充填重量や充填公差はさまざまですが、充填はすべての産業で一般的な操作です。製薬業界では、錠剤生産の厳しい基準を満たし高スループット要件を達成するため、ミリグラム単位の用量を正確かつ高速に充填する必要があります。

General
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袋への充填 (Sachet Filling)

サシェ(小袋)は食品業界や製薬業界で幅広く用いられており、少量の粉体を扱いやすい形態で消費者に提供する場合に使用します。サシェへの充填プロセスでは、生産工程全体を通じて一貫性および均一性の高い充填を行うことにより、重量のばらつきを抑え、含有量の均一性を高めることが不可欠です。

Additives
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流動添加剤が粉体挙動に与える影響 (The Influence of Flow Additives on Powder Behaviour)

多くの粉体は基本的な流動特性が低く、ホッパーやダイフィードフレーム内での詰まりや一貫性のない流れを引き起こし、不均一な排出速度が見られたり装置表面への付着が見られます。また、他の物質とは容易には混合できません。

Cement
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表面処理によるセメント粉体の流動特性の最適化 (Optimising the Flow Properties of Cement Powders by Surface Treatment)

表面処理を行うと、粉体の流動特性を変化させてプロセス性能を最適化することができます。ただし、性能に関する他の側面を低下させることなく流動特性を最適化するには、表面処理の影響を定量化する方法が必要です。

Battery
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フラックス粉体の処理性の評価 (Evaluating Processability of Flux Powders)

フラックス粉体の供給業者は、貯蔵コンテナから最終使用者に提供される小型の容器(プラスチック製の入れ物や袋など)へと分配するすべてのバルク材料供給業者と同じ課題に直面しています。粉体は、貯蔵時には安定的でありながら、充填プロセスでは貯蔵コンテナから目的の容器へと効果的に流動する必要があり、重量のばらつきが少ない均一な方法で複数の容器に充填しなければなりません。

General
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パウダーレオメータFT4TM を使用したケーキングの定量化 (Quantifying Caking using the FT4 Powder Rheometer)

この調査では、動的な手法を用いてケーキングが起きる前後の粉体サンプルの流動エネルギーを計測することで、流動性の変化を定量化しました。

Food
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プロセスに関連性の高い飲料用粉体の特性 (Process Relevant Properties of Drink Powders)

考えられる粉体間の関係と与えられた排出動作における粉体挙動を理解するには、幅広い特性を定量化する必要があります。

General
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高せん断混合が与える影響の理解 (Understanding the Impact of High Shear Blending)

多くの業界において、粉体は高せん断混合操作において他の粉体、すなわち結合剤と混合され、さらなる下流の処理作業に適した均質な混合物を形成します。

General
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スクリューフィーダにおける流動性能の予測 (Predicting Flow Performance in Screw Feeders)

この調査では、粉体のレオロジー特性の確実な評価と標準的な多重線形回帰(MLR)分析に基づいた設計および運用モデルを構築する方法を示します。

General
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粒径および粒子形状が流動特性に与える影響 (The Influence of Particle Size and Shape on Flow Properties)

このアプリケーションノートでは、さまざまな条件下で粒子径および粒子形状が粉体の流動性に与える影響について考察します。

General
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せん断セル試験から数理的に導いたパラメータの限界 (Limitations of Mathematically Derived Parameters from Shear Cell Testing)

せん断セル試験は本来、付着性の高い粉体の連続的な初期流動を応力下で測定し、ホッパー/サイロからの流動をシミュレートするという目的で設計されました。この種の粉体を試験してホッパーの挙動を理解しようとする場合、せん断セル試験は堅実な手法であると言えます。

Pharmaceutical
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粉体特性が投薬パフォーマンスに与える影響 (Influence of Powder Properties on Dosing Performance)

1種類の粉体や混合物を均一に充填できるような特性とは何かを明らかにすれば、膨大な金銭的および時間的コストをかけてサンプルをプロセス全体に投入することなく、最適化された新しい配合組成を特定することができます。これにより、含有量における均一性の低下や重量におけるばらつきの増大を抑えることができます。

Battery
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電池製造における粉体挙動の理解 (Understanding Powder Behaviour in Battery Production)

リチウムイオン(Li-ion)電池は、エネルギー密度が高く、自己放 電への耐性があり、メモリ効果が極めて小さいことから、充電式 電源が必要な幅広い製品に使用されています。このため、消費 者家電、電動工具、自動車、および航空宇宙産業用途にとって魅 力的な電池となっています。

Pharmaceutical
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QbDアプローチ ‒ GEA ConsiGma Twin Screw High Shear Granulatorでの連続錠剤生産におけるパウダーレオメータ FT4による粉体流動性の評価 (A QbD approach to Continuous Tablet Manufacture)

本研究ではフリーマンテクノロジー 社とGEA 社が共同で、粉末設計と連続生産におけるプロセスパラメータの変更が顆粒特性に与える影響を調査しました。

Pharmaceutical
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高せん断湿式造粒における DFFセンサを用いたインラインモニターの例 (In-Line PAT for High Shear Wet Granulation by Measuring Drag Force Flow)

粒状化プロセス中の顆粒特性の進化を定量化する正確なインライン法は、プロセスの理解における主要な前進を表し、プロセス制御の可能性を提供する。

General
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Lenterra Drag Force Flow (DFF)センサの概要

Lenterra DFFセンサは、バルク粉体および顆粒を継続的にリアルタイムで評価することが可能なインライン光学プローブです。

General
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Lenterra Drag Force Flowセンサによるプロセスのモニタリング:データ処理の概要 (Process Monitoring with the Lenterra DFF)

Lenterra Drag Force Flow (DFF)センサを使用すると、プロセス内の粉体移動に伴う特定箇所の荷重をリアルタイムで測定することができます。

General
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Lenterra Drag Force Flowセンサによるプロセスのモニタリング:高せん断湿式造粒法 (Process Monitoring with the Lenterra DFF - HSWG)

プロセス分析技術(PAT)を効果的に活用するには、得られた測定値を理解し、それらをどう解釈して効果的なプロセス制御につなげるかが重要です。

Additive Manufacturing
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Polymere fuer den 3D-dreck (Polymers for 3D Printing)

Selektives Laser-Sintern (SLS) ist eine additive Fertigungstechnik, die typischerweise für das schnelle Prototyping und die Kleinserienfertigung von Funktionsteilen eingesetzt wird.

Additive Manufacturing
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Andwendung des FT4 in der Additiven Fertigung (Applications of the FT4 Powder Rheometer in Additive Manufacturing)

Wie das Pulver fließt und wie sich die Schichten bilden, sind die bestimmenden Aspekte dieser Leistung. Variationen im Ausgangsmaterial können eine ungleichmäßige Schüttdichte, uneinheitliche Schichtanordnung, geringe Zugfestigkeit und eine schlechte Oberflächengüte zur Folge haben.

General
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Der Einfluss der Walzenverdichter-Prozessparameter auf die Granulateigenschaften (Influence of Roller Compactor Process Parameters on Granule Properties)

Dieser Anwendungshinweis beschreibt die gemeinsame Studie von Freeman Technology Ltd. und Gerteis Maschinen+Processengineering AG, in der untersucht wird, wie Prozessparameter die Eigenschaften des Trockengranulats einer Placebo-Formel beeinflussen.

General
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Sachet-Abfuellung (Sachet Filling)

Es ist unerlässlich, dass der Sachet-Abfüllprozess eine gleichmäßige und einheitliche Befüllung über die gesamte Produktionsdauer bei geringer Gewichtsvariation und hoher Gleichmäßigkeit des Inhalts gewährleistet. Signifikante Abweichungen können sowohl finanzielle Risiken bergen als auch bei pharmazeutischen Pulvern die Gesundheit der Patienten gefährden.

Additives
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Der Einfluss von Fliessadditiven auf das pulververhalten (The Influence of Flow Additives on Powder Behaviour)

Viele Pulver haben schlechte Fließeigenschaften: Sie verstopfen in Trichtern und Düsenrahmen, weisen ungleichmäßige oder pulsierende Durchflussraten auf, haften an Geräteoberflächen oder vermischen sich nicht leicht mit anderen Materialien. In solchen Fällen ist es möglich, die Reibung zwischen den Partikeln zu reduzieren und den Schüttgutwiderstand des Pulvers durch Zugabe eines Gleitadditivpulvers zu verändern.

General
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Quantifizierung des Anbackens mit dem FT4-Pulver-Rheometer (Quantifying Caking using the FT4 Powder Rheometer)

Die meisten Pulver erfahren durch die Bildung stärkerer Bindungen zwischen den Partikeln eine Erhöhung ihres Fließwiderstands. In einigen Fällen sind diese Veränderungen reversibel, aber oft hat das Pulver Oberflächenveränderungen erfahren, die zur Bildung dauerhafter Bindungen führen.

General
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Verstaendnis der Auswirkungen des Schnellmischens (Understanding the Impact of High-Shear Blending)

Durch die Vielfalt der Mischergrößen, -geometrien und -methoden kann die Leistung von Maschine zu Maschine variieren und es entstehen Mischungen mit unterschiedlichen Fließeigenschaften, die sich in den nachfolgenden Arbeitsgängen unterschiedlich verhalten.

General
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Vorhersage der Durchflussleistung in Schneckenaufgebern (Predicting Flow Performance in Screw Feeders)

Diese Studie zeigt, wie man ein Design- und Betriebsmodell erstellt, das auf robusten Messungen der rheologischen Eigenschaften von Pulvern und der standardmäßigen MLR-Analyse (Multiple Linear Regression) basiert.

Pharmaceutical
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Ein QbD-Ansatz fuer die kontinuierliche Tablettenherstellung - mit dem FT4-Pulver-Rheometer und dem GEA ConsiGma Doppelschnecken-Schnellmischgranulierer

Die Studie wurde anschließend auf die Tablettenherstellung ausgeweitet, wo Korrelationen zwischen den Granulateigenschaften und den kritischen Qualitätsmerkmalen der Tabletten identifiziert wurden, die die für eine echte Quality by Design (QbD) erforderlichen Informationen liefern.

Battery
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正负极材料的粉体特性对锂电池生产工艺的影响 (Understanding Powder Behaviour in Battery Production)

由于能量密度高, 自放电系数小和低的记忆效应,锂离子电池已被广泛应用于可充电电源的产品,如消费电子,动力工具,电动汽车和航天工程。

Pharmaceutical
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胶囊填充 (Capsule Filling)

在制药行业中,将少量药物活性成分 (API) 与辅料混合,经过各种单元操作完成后续加工—这是诸多生产过程的关键部分。 混合物在下游过程中的行为随混合物不同成分的属性而变化。

Additive Manufacturing
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用于3D打印的聚合物 (Polymers for 3D Printing)

选择性激光烧结 (SLS) 是一种增材制造技术,常用于快速成型和功能性组件的小批量生产。整个过程采用激光束烧结粉体材料,使其粘结在一起,形成一种固体结构。

General
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存储和处理的影响 (The Influence of Storage and Handling)

精确测量入厂原料过程相关属性的方法对于在各行业的广泛应用都大有益处。该应用涉及了对压片用辅料的评估,以及存储和处理条件的影响。

Additive Manufacturing
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FT4在增材制造中的应用 (Applications of the FT4 in Additive Manufacturing)

控制粉体性能对于过程效率和成品质量至关重要。当形成粉层时,粉体流动和装填方式决定了该性能的各个方面。原料的多变性会导致松装密度不一致、粉层不均匀、抗张强度低以及表面光洁度差。

General
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辊压机过程参数对颗粒属性的影响 (The Influence of Roller Compactor Process Parameters on Granule Properties)

本应用案例详细阐述了英国 富瑞曼®科技和Gerteis Maschinen+ Processengineering AG共同展开的研究,以探寻过程参数如何 影响对照品干燥颗粒的属性。

General
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小袋灌装 (Sachet Filling)

在整个生产过程中,小袋灌装过程必须确保均匀、一致,重量差异较小,含量均匀度较高。偏差过大不仅会带来财务风险,涉及到药物时还可能危及患者健康。这也发生在其它各种规格的灌装工艺中,例如,中型散装容器、麻袋、胶囊、冲模。

Additives
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流动添加剂对粉体行为的影响 (The Influence of Flow Additives on Powder Behaviour)

许多粉体的基本流动属性很差,会在料斗和冲模送料结构中堵塞,造成不均匀或间歇式的卸料速率、粘附在设备表面,无法与其它材料充分混合。

General
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使用FT4 粉体流变仪量化结块 (Quantifying Caking using the FT4 Powder Rheometer)

在本研究中,使用动态方法测量粉体样品结块前后的流动能量,以量化流动性的改变。

Coatings
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喷涂应用中的批次差异 (Batch Variability in Spray Coating Applications)

粉体是否能够有效、一致地流化十分关键,过程中也不会形成可能堵塞喷嘴或影响单个颗粒充电的团聚物,导致在基质上粘附性不佳或形成团块。仓储设备中形成流畅的粉流也很关键,涡流进入流化室将形成流化不良的粉体。

General
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使用FT4对湿团进行特性表征 (Characterising Wet Masses using the FT4)

与干粉相比,评估湿团的流动性,提供粉体对水分的响应这一宝贵的信息,不管这是生产过程中特定目的阶段 (例如,湿法造粒),还是暴露于湿度条件下的结果。

General
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粒径和形状对流动性的影响 (The Influence of Particle Size and Shape on Flow Properties)

粉体中颗粒的粒径和形状是影响其行为的重要因素,许多成熟的技术都可测量这些性质。

Pharmaceutical
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松装辅料中无关粒径的差异应用笔记 (Particle Size-Independent Variation of Bulk Excipients)

微晶纤维素 (MCC) 来源丰富,易于生产,不易降解,多年来一直被用作药用辅料。但与其它辅料一样,不同材料批次之间的差异也将导致加工时出现类似的差异,最终致使产品与技术规范不符,需要返工,甚至报废。最新的质量源于设计 (QbD) 举措对优化生产工艺提出了要求,以确保最终产品的一致性和可靠性。

General
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多元分析相较于剪切盒测试的优势 (The Benefits of Multivariate Analysis over Shear Cell Testing)

但该技术往往会应用于其原始范围之外的情况,尝试理解动态、低应力单元操作 (例如,混合、进料、输送、研磨和流化) 以及静止状态(例如,存储)。在这些情况下,剪切盒测试的结果是不确定的,无法准确区分工艺中不同的表现。

General
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表征石膏产品的批次差异特性表征 (Characterising Batch to Batch Variability in Gypsum Products)

石膏粉体在全世界各个行业中广泛应用,例如,在建筑业作为装饰材料或被动防火材料,在医疗应用中作为骨科石膏模的支撑材料。熟石膏粉很容易与水反应,形成石膏浆,制成所需的形状,然后放热固化形成固体。

General
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模具填充操作的设计空间开发 (Developing a Design Space for a Die Filling Operation)

制药行业常常要求精确、高速地填充毫克级别的剂量,以满足药片制造的严格标准和高产出要求。相较而言,大宗化学品和矿产业可能要将粉体装载到20吨的容器中,填充过程长,没有高精度要求的监管压力。

Cement
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通过表面处理优化水泥粉体的流动性 (Optimising the Flow Properties of Cement Powders by Surface Treatment)

表面处理可改变粉体的流动性,从而优化其过程性能。但需要找到一种量化表面处理的影响的方法,以确保在优化流动性的同时不影响其它方面的性能.

General
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剪切盒测试数学推导参数的局限 (Limitations of Mathematically Derived Parameters from Shear Cell Testing)

剪切盒测试原为确定连续、粘性粉体在施加应力下流动初始而设计,用以模拟粉体在料斗或筒仓中的流动。要通过测试这种类型的粉体来理解料斗行为,相较于FT4其它方法,剪切盒测试技术稳健可靠,是个良好的补充测试。

Ceramic
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陶瓷热等静压中性能变化的表征 (Characterising Variable Performance in Ceramic Hot Isostatic Pressing)

在某些高性能陶瓷生产中,将喷雾干燥的研磨材料颗粒填充到模具中进行等静压处理,随后烧结成成品。这种工艺可完成高度专业的设计,使得不同材料在特定应用中呈现最优特性。

Battery
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评估熔剂粉加工性能 (Evaluating Processability of Flux Powders)

在各种分析过程的样品制备中,硼酸盐熔剂常用于分解化学稳定材料,生成玻璃状固溶体,以便使用X射线荧光、原子吸收和其它技术进行分析。硼酸盐融熔法是一种快速、安全的样品制备法,它可避免使用浓酸熔解样品的时间和风险。

Pharmaceutical
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应用FT4 粉体流变仪多功能粉末性质测试仪及GEA ConsiGma双螺杆高剪切造粒机,通过QbD方法实现连续式片剂生产

将本研究拓展到片剂生产后,发现制粒的性质与片剂的关键质量属性之间亦存在明显的对应关系。这种对应关系正是真正的质量源于设计(QbD)方法所需要的信息。

General
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Optimising Unit Operations using the FT4 Powder Rheometer

A thorough understanding of how a bulk material will behave over a range of conditions, and in various phases of flow – whether stationary, in motion or about to move – is vital for designing and monitoring the unit operations and transfer systems that make up any given process.

Pharmaceutical
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Uniaxial Powder Testing for Optimising High Shear Wet Granulation

This application note presents a study using the Uniaxial Powder Tester (UPT) to characterise a range of pharmaceutical blends and the corresponding granulates to illustrate how uUYS values can clearly differentiate between the formulations and quantify the impact of the granulation process conditions.

Pharmaceutical
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Manufacturing Support using the FT4 Powder Rheometer

By measuring and understanding powder behaviour, these challenges can be overcome, and effective decisions on changing raw materials or production methods can be made.

Pharmaceutical
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Using Powder Characterisation to Develop Generic Dry Powder Inhalers

DPI performance will be dependent on several powder properties, including the response to air, permeability, inter-particular mechanical locking and friction. By measuring the rheological properties of DPI formulations, the properties of generic products can be matched to their branded counterparts.

Pharmaceutical
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采用粉体流变学研发仿制粉雾剂 (Using Powder Characterisation to Develop Generic Dry Powder Inhalers)

DPI的表现性能将取决于粉体的性能,包括对气流的响应、渗透性、颗粒间机械咬合及摩擦。通过测量DPI制剂的流变性能,能够使得仿制产品的性能与品牌产品相匹配。

Pharmaceutical
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Applications of the Lenterra DFF Sensor in Powder Characterisation

The DFF sensor is highly versatile, with probes available in a variety of force ranges, and can be inserted into a process in multiple ways, allowing material flow to be monitored in a range of unit operations such as blenders, granulators, pipes and chutes.

Toner
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Applications of the FT4 in the Toner Industry

A method of correlating primary toner properties with printing performance, enabling criteria to be defined that predict performance, can deliver significant commercial advantages in terms of increased productivity and reduced waste.

General
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固结、预处理和充气粉体的流动性测量:一项使用粉体流变仪和旋转剪切盒的比较研究

本文采用富瑞曼FT4粉体流变仪提供的两种方法对粉体流动性测量值进行了比较。

Metals
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Limitations of Particle Characterisation and Simple Flow Measurement for Bulk Powder Characterisation

This work involved the application of a hydrophobic surface coating to fine aluminium particles and extensive characterisation of the resulting materials. The data illustrate how powder flow properties can be substantially altered, with negligible changes in particle size, and demonstrate the limitations of simple flow measurement techniques for assessing how changes in flowability will impact process performance.

General
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Using Powder Testing to Optimise the Processing Characteristics of Amorphous Solid Dispersions

This note summarises work by researchers at the Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Ireland to address the issue of characterising ASDs to rationalise and predict differences in downstream processing performance.